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Magic: The Gathering (colloquially known as Magic or MTG) is a tabletop and digital collectible card game created by Richard Garfield. Released in 1993 by Wizards of the Coast (now a subsidiary of Hasbro), Magic was the first trading card game and had approximately thirty-five million players as of December 2018, and over twenty billion Magic cards were produced in the period from 2008 to 2016, during which time it grew in popularity.
A player in Magic takes the role of a Planeswalker, a powerful wizard who can travel (“walk”) between dimensions (“planes”) of the Multiverse, doing battle with other players as Planeswalkers by casting spells, using artifacts, and summoning creatures as depicted on individual cards drawn from their individual decks. A player defeats their opponent typically (but not always) by casting spells and attacking with creatures to deal damage to the opponent’s “life total,” with the object being to reduce it from 20 to 0. Although the original concept of the game drew heavily from the motifs of traditional fantasy role-playing games such as Dungeons & Dragons, the gameplay bears little similarity to paper-and-pencil games, while simultaneously having substantially more cards and more complex rules than many other card games.
Magic can be played by two or more players, either in person with printed cards or on a computer, smartphone or tablet with virtual cards through the Internet-based software Magic: The Gathering Online or other video games such as Magic: The Gathering Arena and Magic Duels. It can be played in various rule formats, which fall into two categories: constructed and limited. Limited formats involve players building a deck spontaneously out of a pool of random cards with a minimum deck size of 40 cards; in constructed formats, players create decks from cards they own, usually with a minimum of 60 cards per deck.
New cards are released on a regular basis through expansion sets. Further developments include the Wizards Play Network played at the international level and the worldwide community Players Tour, as well as a substantial resale market for Magic cards. Certain cards can be valuable due to their rarity in production and utility in gameplay, with prices ranging from a few cents to tens of thousands of dollars.
5 COLORS. 5 PLAY STYLES. ENDLESS POSSIBILITIES.
Each of the five colors in Magic represent a different philosophy and a different playstyle. Choose your color(s) to decide which type of land you’ll be drawing resources (mana) from and what type of Magic you’ll wield.
The main issue to guarantee fair play in a card game is that all cards in the deck must be indistinguishable for any player who does not view the front side (if card sleeves are used, the term ‘card’ means the sleeve with the card inside).
Ideally, all cards (both original and proxy) should be indistinguishable in the following characteristics to ensure fairness:
Card size and shape, including the typical rounding cut on the edges.
The card’s total weight, its center of gravity and, ideally, the moment of inertia (which implies a homogeneous distribution of mass on the surface).
Overall and local stiffness and elasticity – all cards should behave equally on bending.
Overall and local thickness.
Feel and relief (tactilecharacteristics) of the card, especially elevations and cavities on the surface on both sides.
The image printed on the back side, including its shininess.
Overall and local transparency, when examined with a light from behind.
Besides these physical implications, it should be considered that someone (the players or a judge) will need to control the validity of the cards – which may prove difficult with some of the above points.
Magic is a trading card game, or TCG. While trading cards predate Magic by more than a century, and solitaire games using them date to the 1950s, Magic was the first product to combine randomized, collectible cards with deck-construction and interactive gameplay.